July 9–13, 2007
Wrocław — Poland
ICALP 2007
34th International Colloquium on
Automata, Languages and Programming
Colocated with LICS 2007, LC 2007, and PPDP 2007

List of accepted papers

(In order of appearance)

Track C: Security and Foundations of Cryptography

Private Multiparty Sampling and Approximation of Vector Combinations
Yuval Ishai, Tal Malkin, Martin J. Strauss and Rebecca N. Wright

We consider the problem of private efficient data mining of vertically-partitioned databases. Each of several parties holds a column of a data matrix (a vector) and the parties want to investigate the componentwise combination of their vectors. The parties want to minimize communication and local computation while guaranteeing privacy in the sense that no party learns more than necessary. Sublinear-communication private protocols have been primarily been studied only in the two-party case. We give efficient multiparty protocols for sampling a row of the data matrix and for computing arbitrary functions of a row, where the row index is additively shared among two or more parties. We also give protocols for approximating the componentwise sum, minimum, or maximum of the columns in which the communication and the number of public-key operations are at most polynomial in the size of the small approximation and polylogarithmic in the number of rows.

Constant-Round Private Database Queries
Nenad Dedic and Payman Mohassel

We consider several private database query problems. The starting point of this work is the element rank problem: the server holds a database of n integers, and the user an integer q; the user wishes to find out how many database records are smaller than q, without revealing q; nothing else about the database should be disclosed. We show a non-interactive communication-efficient solution to this problem. We then use it to solve more complex private database queries: range queries, range queries in plane and higher-dimensional generalizations of element rank. We also show an improved solution to the k-th ranked element problem, and a solution to private keyword search using weaker assumptions than in previous results. All our solutions assume semi-honest adversarial behaviour.

Deterministic History-Independent Strategies for Storing Information on Write-Once Memories
Tal Moran, Moni Naor and Gil Segev

Motivated by the challenging task of designing "secure" vote storage mechanisms, we deal with information storage mechanisms that operate in extremely hostile environments. In such environments, the majority of existing techniques for information storage and for security are susceptible to powerful adversarial attacks. In this setting, we propose a mechanism for storing a set of at most K elements from a large universe of size N on write-once memories in a manner that does not reveal the insertion order of the elements. Whereas previously known constructions were either inefficient (required Θ(K2) memory), randomized, or employed cryptographic techniques which are unlikely to be available in hostile environments, we eliminate each of these undesirable properties. The total amount of memory used by the mechanism is linear in the number of stored elements and poly-logarithmic in the size of the universe of elements.

In addition, we consider one of the classical distributed computing problems: Conflict resolution in multiple-access channels. By establishing a tight connection with the basic building block of our mechanism, we construct the first deterministic and non-adaptive conflict resolution algorithm whose running time is optimal up to poly-logarithmic factors.

Trading Static for Adaptive Security in Universally Composable Zero-Knowledge
Aggelos Kiayias and Hong-Sheng Zhou

Adaptive security, while more realistic as an adversarial model, is typically much harder to achieve compared to static security in cryptographic protocol design. Universal composition (UC) provides a very attractive framework for the modular design of cryptographic protocols that captures both static and adaptive security formulations. In the UC framework, one can design protocols in hybrid worlds that allow access to idealized functionalities and then apply the universal composition theorem to obtain more concrete protocol instances. The zero-knowledge (ZK) ideal functionality is one of the most useful sub-protocols in modular cryptographic design. Given an adaptively secure protocol in the ideal ZK-hybrid-world do we always need an adaptively secure realization of the ZK functionality in order to preserve adaptive security under composition? In this work, perhaps surprisingly, we find that this is not so and in fact there are useful protocol instances that we can "trade static security for adaptive security."

We investigate the above setting, by introducing a weakened ZK ideal functionality, called the ideal leaking-zero-knowledge functionality (LZK) that leaks some information about the witness to the adversary in a certain prescribed way. We show that while LZK is interchangeable to ZK against static adversaries, ZK is more stringent when adaptive adversaries are considered. We then proceed to characterize a class of protocols in the hybrid-ZK-world that can be "transported" to the LZK-hybrid-world without forfeiting their security against adaptive adversaries. Our results demonstrate that in such settings a static protocol realization of ZK is sufficient for ensuring adaptive security for the parent hybrid protocol something that enables simplified and substantially more efficient UC realizations of such protocols.

A Characterization of Non-Interactive Instance-Dependent Commitment-Schemes (NIC)
Bruce Kapron, Lior Malka and Venkatesh Srinivasan

We provide a new characterization of certain zero-knowledge protocols as non-interactive instance-dependent commitment-schemes (NIC). To obtain this result we consider the notion of V-bit protocols, which are very common, and found many applications in zero-knowledge. Our characterization result states that a protocol has a V-bit zero-knowledge protocol if and only if it has a NIC. The NIC inherits its hiding property from the zero-knowledge property of the protocol, and vice versa.

Our characterization result yields a framework that strengthens and simplifies many zero-knowledge protocols in various settings. For example, applying this framework to the result of Micciancio et al. (who showed that some problems, including GRAPH-NONISOMORPHISM and QUADRATIC-RESIDUOUSITY, unconditionally have a concurrent zero-knowledge proof) we easily get that arbitrary, monotone boolean formulae over a large class of problems (which contains, e.g., the complement of any random self-reducible problem) unconditionally have a concurrent zero-knowledge proof.

Private Locally Decodable Codes
Rafail Ostrovsky, Omkant Pandey and Amit Sahai

We consider the problem of constructing efficient locally decodable codes in the presence of a computationally bounded adversary. Assuming the existence of one-way functions, we construct efficient locally decodable codes with positive information rate and low (almost optimal) query complexity which can correctly decode any given bit of the message from constant channel error rate ρ. This compares favorably to our state of knowledge locally-decodable codes without cryptographic assumptions. For all our constructions, the probability for any polynomial-time adversary, that the decoding algorithm incorrectly decodes any bit of the message is negligible in the security parameter.

Hash Functions in the Dedicated-Key Setting: Design Choices and MPP Transforms
Mihir Bellare and Thomas Ristenpart

In the dedicated-key setting, one uses a compression function f:{0,1}k×{0,1}n+d→{0,1}n to build a family of hash functions Hf:K×M→{0,1}n indexed by a key space K. This is different from the more traditional design approach used to build hash functions such as MD5 or SHA-1, in which compression functions and hash functions do not have dedicated key inputs. We explore the benefits and drawbacks of building hash functions in the dedicated-key setting (as compared to the more traditional approach), highlighting several unique features of the former. Should one choose to build hash functions in the dedicated-key setting, we suggest utilizing multi-property-preserving (MPP) domain extension transforms. We analyze seven existing dedicated-key transforms with regard to the MPP goal and propose two simple new MPP transforms.

Unrestricted Aggregate Signatures
Mihir Bellare, Chanathip Namprempre and Gregory Neven

Secure use of the BGLS aggregate signature schemes is restricted to the aggregation of distinct messages (for the basic scheme) or per-signer distinct messages (for the enhanced, prepend-public-key version of the scheme). We argue that these restrictions preclude interesting applications, make usage of the schemes error-prone and are generally undesirable in practice. Via a new analysis and proof, we show how the restrictions can be lifted, yielding the first truly unrestricted aggregate signature scheme. Via another new analysis and proof, we show that the distinct signer restriction on the sequential aggregate signature schemes can also be dropped, yielding an unrestricted sequential aggregate signature scheme.

Ring Signatures of Sub-Linear Size without Random Oracles
Nishanth Chandran, Jens Groth and Amit Sahai

Ring signatures, introduced by Rivest, Shamir and Tauman, enable a user to sign a message anonymously on behalf of a "ring". A ring is a group of users, which includes the signer. We propose a ring signature scheme that has size O(√N) where N is the number of users in the ring. An additional feature of our scheme is that it has perfect anonymity.

Our ring signature like most other schemes uses the common reference string model. We offer a variation of our scheme, where the signer is guaranteed anonymity even if the common reference string is maliciously generated.

Ben Adida and Douglas Wikström

We introduce an offline precomputation technique for mix-nets that drastically reduces the amount of online computation needed. Our method can be based on any additively homomorphic cryptosystem and is applicable when the number of senders and the maximal bit-size of messages are relatively small.

Fully Collusion Resistant Black-Box Traitor Revocable Broadcast Encryption with Short Private Keys
Jun Furukawa and Nuttapong Attrapadung

Broadcast encryption schemes enable senders to efficiently broadcast ciphertexts to a large set of receivers in a way that only non-revoked receivers can decrypt them. Black-box traitor revocable broadcast encryption schemes are broadcast encryption schemes that enable a tracer, who is given a pirate decoder, to identify traitors by black-box accessing the given pirated decoder and to revoke traitors so identified. In this paper, we propose a fully collusion resistant black-box traitor revocable broadcast encryption scheme in which the size of each private key is constant, the size of the public key is proportional to the number of receivers, and the sizes of ciphertexts are sub-linear with respect to the number of receivers. The encryption procedure in our scheme requires only a public key. The tracing procedure in it requires only a public key and black-box access to a resettable pirate decoder. The security of our scheme is proved in the generic bilinear group model if the subgroup decision assumption holds.